Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination generates protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is no clear evidence of COVID-19 vaccine-induced menstrual irregularities.
Objective: To identify potential menstrual irregularities following COVID-19 vaccine among females.
Methods: A worldwide cross-sectional survey study was conducted from June 10, 2021, to July 10, 2021 using online mediums. The survey consisted of 15 questions divided into baseline characteristics, vaccination status and dosage, menstruation and relate factors, and thoughts and knowledge about menstrual irregularities. Non-probability convenience sampling method was used including 510 responses. The results were tabulated, with bivariate analysis and chi-square test results. The sensitivity and specificity test of factors associated to knowledge about menstrual irregularities post COVID-19 vaccination were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Results: The associations between healthcare worker (HCW) status and perceptions (χ2 = 10.422; p = 0.064), and knowledge about menstrual irregularities post-vaccination (χ2 = 1.966; p = 0.161) were found. Vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated women had a higher risk of change in inter-cycle length between periods (OR = 3.172; 95% CI = 0.470-21.431). Of 314 HCW vs. 196 non-HCW, 60 (19.1%) vs. 28 (14.3%) were knowledgeable about menstrual irregularities (OR = 1.338, 95% CI = 0.886-2.019 vs. OR = 0.944; 95% CI = 0.873-1.021). On asking the HCW vs. non-HCW about perceptions of COVID-19 vaccine-induced menstrual irregularities, 24 (7.6%) vs. 9 (4.6%) agreed, 139 (44.3%) vs. 67 (34.2%) disagreed, and 151 (48.1%) vs. 120 (61.2%) did not know or chose not applicable.
Conclusion: There is a gap in the current understanding of menstrual irregularities, even if temporary, following COVID-19 vaccination that requires further exploration. Misinformation may also be the culprit for the observed proportion of women that noticed changes in their menstrual periods after COVID-19 vaccination.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Annals of medicine and surgery