Role of inhaled antibiotics in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis: Experience from the tertiary care center

Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health; Medical College Pakistan


Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) remains under-diagnosed in Pakistan. CF population has increased tendency for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection and it is one of the leading causes of mortality. Utilizing inhaled antibiotics (IAs) for the treatment of Pa infection has been well established in the literature. There is limited data available on CF in Pakistan, especially regarding the efficacy of IAs. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of IAs on Pa infection in children and adolescents with CF.
Methodology: CF patients enrolled between January 2012 and December 2019 were selected as part of this retrospective cohort study. CF patients from 2 to 18 years of age who cultured Pa on any respiratory sample and who had never been Pa-free in at least two sputum cultures in the previous 12 months were included. Patients were divided into an IA group and a noninhaled antibiotic (NIA) group based on the treatment they received. Follow-up was done between 3 and 6 months posttherapy on Pseudomonas growth in the sputum. The number of pulmonary exacerbations were documented for 6 months follow-up.
Results: Eighty-one children with CF were enrolled during the study period, of which 39 were in the IA group and 42 were in the NIA group. There was no significant difference in their demographics and initial clinical characteristics. The mean pulmonary exacerbations after 6 months were lower in the IA group as compared to the NIA group (1.102 ± 0.50 vs. 2.45 ± 0.89: P = 0.001). Follow-up between 3 and 6 months showed greater Pseudomonas colonization in the IA group versus the NIA group (53.84% vs. 92.85%: P = 0.001).
Conclusion: IAs in combination with airway clearance therapy and oral or IV antibiotics are an effective regimen for children with CF.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Lung India