Salmonellosis including enteric fever
Paediatrics and Child Health; Cardiology
Salmonella is a gram-negative, motile, nonsporulating, facultative anaerobic bacillus, belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria were first identified in 1884. It is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or indirect contact by the consumption of contaminated food and water. More than 2500 serotypes of Salmonella enterica have been identified but less than 100 serotypes are known to cause infections in humans. S. enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi) and S. enterica serovar paratyphi (S. paratyphi A B C) cause enteric fever, whereas nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) cause diarrhea. NTS commonly presents with gastroenteritis and is a self-limiting disease. Enteric fever is a potentially life-threatening acute febrile systemic infection and is diagnosed by isolating a pathogen on culture. With the emergence of the extensive drug-resistant (XDR) S. typhi clone, limited treatment options are available. Vaccination of persons at risk, improvement of sanitation, promotion of food hygiene, and detection and control of chronic carriers are essential preventive control measures of enteric fever.
Pediatric Clinics of North America
(2022). Salmonellosis including enteric fever. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 69(1), 65-77.
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