Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Objective: To determine population-based estimates of COVID-19 in a densely populated urban community of Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in April, June and August in low- and high-transmission neighborhoods. Participants were randomly selected to provide blood for Elecsys® immunoassay for detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Bayesian regression model was used to estimate seroprevalence after adjusting for the demographic characteristics of each district RESULTS: We enrolled 3005 participants from 623 households. In Phase 2, adjusted seroprevalence was estimated as 8.7% (95% CI 5.1-13.1) and 15.1% (95% CI 9.4 -21.7) in low and high transmission areas respectively, compared to 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.7) and 0.4% (95% CI 0 - 1.3) in Phase 1. In Phase 3, it was 12.8% (95% CI 8.3 - 17.7) and 21.5% (95% CI 15.6-28) in low and high transmission areas, respectively. CRI was 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.47) and 0.41(95% CI 0.28-0.52) in low and high transmission neighborhoods respectively in Phase 2. Similar trends were observed in Phase 3. Only 5.4% of participants who tested positive for COVID-19 were symptomatic. IFR was 1.66%, 0.37% and 0.26% in Phases 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
Conclusion: Continuing rounds of seroprevalence studies will help us better understand secular trends and extent of infection during the course of the pandemic.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

International Journal of Infectious Diseases