A systematic review of simulation training for lower extremity bypass procedures

Document Type

Review Article


Vascular Surgery


Objectives: Simulation is used across surgical specialties for skill enhancement. The choice and assessment method of a simulator varies across literature. In the age of endovascular approach, trainees have limited exposure to open lower limb bypass procedures which needs attention. This review aims to assess the utility of simulation training in lower limb bypass surgery using Kirkpatrick's model.
Methods: Using PRISMA statement, we included all the studies done on simulators in lower limb bypass surgical procedures for this systematic review. The primary outcome was to assess the effectiveness of different types of simulation used for lower limb bypass surgery using the Kirkpatrick's model for training evaluation.
Results: An initial search identified 295 articles out of which 7 articles were found to be eligible for this systematic review. A variety of simulators were used including cadavers and synthetic models. Most studies (n=5) found the use of simulation as an effective tool in achieving technical competence. All the five studies we found at level 2 on Kirpatrick's model evaluation.
Conclusion: Most of the existing studies are at level 2 of Kirkpatrick's model which reflects learning changes in trainees after simulation. Feedback mechanism needs to be evolved where the improvement after simulation training can be gauged by its replication in clinical practice and improved patient care practices corresponding to the highest level of Kirkpatrick's model.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Sage Journals