Document Type





After circumcision the first operations done on man were for bladder stone. Done by charlatans the operation often resulted in loss of life and caused the early lithotomists to maintain a peri­patetic existence, vanishing from the town the night after surgery was performed. About two centuries ago stones became a common disease amongst kings: surgeons took over from the charlatans and commenced blind skilful mechanical lithotripsy where a curved instrument was introduced per urethram, its jaws opened to engage the stone which was then crushed by a mechanical (screw driven) closure of the jaws. Now-a-days urinary bladder lithotripsy is done under vision and aided by ultrasound drilling, or electrohydraulic shock wave produced by a direct contact probe. Renal stones can be safely operated on or removed percutaneously.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association