Document Type

Review Article


Cardiothoracic Surgery; General Surgery; Neurosurgery; Orthopaedic Surgery; Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery


Technological progress has changed the landscape of surgical practice. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and percutaneous interventions (PC) are constantly replacing open procedures. This reduces hospital stay and allows quicker recovery. The application of MIS should follow the good medical practice dictum by Hippocrates i.e. "First do no harm". To remain abreast with new procedures, the medical personnel are required to update and enhance their knowledge and skill. To ensure safety, the innovations are rigorously tested and tried. The learning curve of MIS is shortened by simulator training and proctorship. Credentialing processes are in place to enhance safe delivery of care. Despite of all these measures MIS and PCI are associated with adverse effects. The purpose of this article is to overview the iatrogenic trauma associated with MIS and PCI in major surgical subspecialties.

Publication (Name of Journal)

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association