Document Type

Review Article


Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery


The temporal bone consists of complex anatomy, and the presence of various vital structures in close proximity makes the surgery of temporal bone highly challenging. Such a surgery requires years of training under the direct observation of trainers. Over the course of history, different training models have been adopted by experts to help train the young surgeons in this complex procedure. Cadaveric dissections of the temporal bone remains the gold standard in training of residents as the cadavers present the actual anatomical details which the surgeons encounter while operating on patients. However, due to scarcity of available cadavers, their one-time-only usage and high cost of involved in such trainings, experts have developed newer techniques of training, including three-dimensional reconstruction models and virtual reality simulators. Most of the literature on simulation in training of residents focuses on anatomical understanding and development of the surgical technique. There has been significant improvement in these techniques over time. With the addition of haptic feedback in the newer virtual simulation models, simulation has edged closer to basic modules of temporal bone dissection. the current review article was planned to have an overview of the different techniques in detail that are currently being in used.

Publication (Name of Journal)

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association