Document Type



Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery


In the past two decades, endoscopic sinus surgeries (ESS) have been widely advocated as a safe and effective treatment for disorders of paranasal sinuses that are refractory to medical therapy. ESS caters surgeons with two-dimensional visualization of the anatomical structures; however in scenarios where there is a close anatomical relation between the disease and delicate intracranial or intraorbital structures drastic complications can occur. Hence, endoscopic procedures had to be converted into open surgical procedures if the extent of the disease could not be visualized or cleared thoroughly. Recently however; neuronavigation systems have been combined with ESS to yield better results and facilitate this procedure. The implementation of these systems with ESS has aided surgeons in difficult approaches. We recently decided to use the neuronavigation system of our Neurosurgical department to help aid eradicate various nasal and sinus pathologies in a series of patients.


Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association