Risk factors and predictors of intraoperative seizures during awake craniotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Document Type

Review Article




Background: Awake craniotomy (AC) aims to minimize postoperative neurological complications while allowing maximum safe resection. Intraoperative seizures (IOSs) have been a reported complication during AC; however, literature delving into the predictors of IOS remains limited. Therefore, we planned a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature to explore predictors of IOS during AC.
Methods: From the inception until June 1, 2022, systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Cochrane’s Central Register of Controlled Trials were conducted to look for published studies reporting IOS predictors during AC.
Results: We found 83 different studies in total; included were six studies with a total of 1815 patients, and 8.4% of them experienced IOSs. The mean age of included patients was 45.3 years, and 38% of the sample was female. Glioma was the most common diagnosis among the patients. A pooled random effect odds ratio (OR) of frontal lobe lesions was 2.42 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.10–5.33, P = 0.03). Those with a pre-existing history of seizures had an OR of 1.80 (95% CI: 1.13–2.87, P = 0.01), and patients on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) had a pooled OR of 2.47 (95% CI: 1.59–3.85, P.
Conclusion: Patients with lesions of the frontal lobe, a prior history of seizures, and patients on AEDs are at higher risk of IOSs. These factors should be taken into consideration during the patient’s preparation for an AC to avoid an intractable seizure and consequently a failed AC.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Surgical Neurology International