Relationship among hypovitaminosis d, maternal periodontal disease, and low birth weight.

Farhan Raza Khan, Aga Khan University
Tashfeen Ahmad, Aga Khan University
Rabia Hussain, Aha Khan University
Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Aga Khan University


To determine if low birth weight is associated with hypovitaminosis D and periodontal disease among a sample of Pakistani women residing in district Jhelum, Punjab. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study nested in a large community-based longitudinal study.
Tehsil Pind Dadan Khan, District Jhelum, Pakistan from August 2012 to October 2015.
METHODOLOGY: Women during 12-16th week of pregnancy were selected. Dental examination was performed. Probing depth >3 mm was labeled as periodontal disease, whereas serum level <20.0 ng/mL was taken as hypovitaminosis D. Mothers of low birth weight babies (<2500 g) were compared to mothers who gave birth to normal weight (>2500 g) babies. Odds ratio was applied to measure the strength of association of low birth weight with maternal hypovitaminosis D and also for maternal periodontal disease.
RESULTS: There were 62 participants in the study. The mean age of mothers was 26.7 ±4.5 years. It was alarming to observe that 53 (85%) participants had vitamin D deficiency. However, periodontal disease was only seen in four participants (6%). Out of the 62 mothers, eighteen (29%) gave birth to low birth weight babies. None of the variables were found to be associated with the low birth weight.
The present study did not find any significant association of low birth weight with hypovitaminosis D or maternal periodontal disease in the studied sample