Golden Proportion in Visual Dental Smile in Pakistani Population: A Pilot Study

Document Type



Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery


Introduction: It has always been argued as to what constitutes good dental esthetics, as it can vary from person to person depending on personal experiences and social surroundings. Golden proportion has been stated to be an important tool for achieving esthetics and harmony in smile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of golden proportion of the apparent width in a selected sample of Pakistani population, to examine if there is gender difference considering actual maxillary frontal teeth widths, to determine the usefulness of Levin’s Phi Dental Grid as a predictor of golden proportion. Material and Method: From one hundred patients evaluated using non-probability sampling, only 44 were included in the study. Dental casts of the selected individuals were used for teeth measurement. The actual width (measured mesiodistal width) was measured using vernier caliper, the apparent width (width of the maxillary frontal teeth when viewed from the front) was measured using the grid and the caliper, and the predicted width was calculated using the Golden proportion for the maxillary lateral incisor and the maxillary canine. Data was subjected to statistical analysis (descriptive statistics, Pearson’s coeficient of correlation, t-test). Results: Sixty three percent of the sample (22 females and 6 males)
fitted the scale of golden proportion considering the apparent width of the maxillary frontal teeth. When viewed from the front, maxillary lateral incisor’s apparent width was 75% of the central incisor’s actual width (central incisor was reference tooth therefore actual width was used) and the canine’s apparent width was 61.3% (almost golden percentage) of the lateral incisor’s apparent width. There was no significant gender difference for the actual widths of the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines. Conclusion: Phi Dental Grid can be useful tool and a good starting point to predict golden proportion in 63% of the Pakistani population. However, golden proportion should not be considered as a decisive factor of determining dental attractiveness. It should be a range rather then a single value.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Acta Stomatologica Croatica