Leveraging Large Language Models in the delivery of post-operative dental care: A comparison between an embedded GPT model and ChatGPT

Document Type



Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery; Surgery


Objective: This study underscores the transformative role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare, particularly the promising applications of Large Language Models (LLMs) in the delivery of post-operative dental care. The aim is to evaluate the performance of an embedded GPT model and its comparison with ChatGPT-3.5 turbo. The assessment focuses on aspects like response accuracy, clarity, relevance, and up-to-date knowledge in addressing patient concerns and facilitating informed decision-making.
Material and methods: An embedded GPT model, employing GPT-3.5-16k, was crafted via GPT-trainer to answer postoperative questions in four dental specialties including Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, Periodontics, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, and Prosthodontics. The generated responses were validated by thirty-six dental experts, nine from each specialty, employing a Likert scale, providing comprehensive insights into the embedded GPT model's performance and its comparison with GPT3.5 turbo. For content validation, a quantitative Content Validity Index (CVI) was used. The CVI was calculated both at the item level (I-CVI) and scale level (S-CVI/Ave). To adjust I-CVI for chance agreement, a modified kappa statistic (K*) was computed.
Results: The overall content validity of responses generated via embedded GPT model and ChatGPT was 65.62% and 61.87% respectively. Moreover, the embedded GPT model revealed a superior performance surpassing ChatGPT with an accuracy of 62.5% and clarity of 72.5%. In contrast, the responses generated via ChatGPT achieved slightly lower scores, with an accuracy of 52.5% and clarity of 67.5%. However, both models performed equally well in terms of relevance and up-to-date knowledge.
Conclusion: In conclusion, embedded GPT model showed better results as compared to ChatGPT in providing post-operative dental care emphasizing the benefits of embedding and prompt engineering, paving the way for future advancements in healthcare applications.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

BDJ Open