Changes in smile parameters as perceived by orthodontists, dentists, artists, and laypeople.

Document Type



Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery


Aim:To evaluate attractiveness of a smile subjected to computerized variations as perceived by orthodontic residents, operative dentistry residents, art students, and laypeople.


Frontal facial photographs of 1 male and 1 female subject were altered using Adobe Photoshop 8.0. The judges who evaluated these 46 images (23 of each subject) comprised 4 groups: orthodontic residents, operative dentistry residents, art students, and laypeople. This cross-sectional study took place between December 2005 and February 2006 at the orthodontic clinic of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi Medical & Dental College, Indus Valley School of Art & Architecture, and the waiting area of the AKUH dental clinic. A 5-point visual analog grading scale on the data-collection form was used to rate images. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze data.


A medium-broad to broad smile, full incisor display with 2 mm of gingival exposure, and a consonant smile arc were preferred in the female subject, while a broad smile, full incisor display, and a flat smile arc were preferred in the male subject. Variation in incisor angulation was better received than midline deviation.


Although smile therapy is still in its infancy, society has already placed a great demand on dentists to evaluate and treat smiles. Our responsibility as orthodontists is to face this new challenge and acquire the skills to identify various smile patterns so as to better rehabilitate our Patients' smiles.

Publication (Name of Journal)

World Journal of Orthodontics