A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of antibiotics versus probiotics as an adjuvant to nonsurgical periodontal treatment among smokers with Stage III, Grade C generalized periodontitis

Document Type



Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery; Surgery


Background: Probiotics are viable microorganisms, which if delivered in appropriate dose can provide health benefits. Lactobacillus reuteri (DM17938+ATCC PTA 5289) has been recommended as a safe choice for probiotics. The objective of this study is to compare the improvement in the periodontal parameters amongst smokers with generalized periodontitis with Stage III, Grade C treated with nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) to which either an antibiotics or probiotics were given as an adjuvant.
Methods: Sixty smokers with Stage III, Grade C generalized periodontitis were randomized in two groups after taking informed consent. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Group 1 received (after NSPT and oral hygiene instructions) amoxicillin and metronidazole for 7 days and a placebo for probiotics for 30 days. Group 2 was provided (after NSPT and oral hygiene instructions) with one tablet of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics (2 × 108 CFU) twice daily for 30 days and placebo antibiotics for 7 days. The periodontal parameters were recorded again at 1- and 3-month follow-ups as outcome variables. Mean, standard deviation, and confidence interval were reported using SPSS 20.0.
Results: A statistically significant clinical improvement in the PD, BOP, PI, and GI were observed in both the groups at 3-month follow-up. However, the AL remained unchanged in both the groups.
Conclusions: Administration of probiotics and antibiotics along with NSPT yield statistically significant differences in PD and BOP from baseline to 3-month follow-up. However, between the group differences were not statistically significant for the periodontal parameters (AL, PD, and BOP).


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Clinical Advances in Periodontics