The influence of incisor inclination and anterior vertical facial height on facial attractiveness in an Asian woman

Document Type



Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery


Introduction: Orthodontic treatment can help improve facial attractiveness through the modification of factors affecting the soft tissue profile. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of different maxillary incisal inclinations and lower anterior facial heights (at rest and with a smile) on the facial attractiveness of an Asian woman, as perceived by different panels of raters using visual analog scale (VAS) scores.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 66 raters equally divided into 3 panels that consisted of general dentists, orthodontic residents, and laypersons. Raters assessed modified photographs of a subject with various incisor inclinations and lower anterior facial height/total anterior facial height (LAFH/TAFH) on lateral profile view. Modifications were made using Photoshop software (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). Subjective evaluations of facial attractiveness were performed by raters using VAS. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare VAS scores among raters. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to compare VAS scores between groups.
Results: Significant differences in VAS scores were found among raters for -10° (P = 0.004) and -15° (P = 0.021) incisal inclinations. Significant differences were found in VAS scores for -8% LAFH/TAFH (P = 0.044) and 4% LAFH/TAFH with smile (P = 0.002).
Conclusions: Professionals preferred normal incisal inclinations to be the most attractive. General dentists found reduced facial height to be unattractive. Orthodontic residents and laypersons considered increased LAFH/TAFH to be most unattractive. Smile had a negative impact on VAS scores at extreme anterior facial height modifications.


Volume, issue, and pagination are not provided by the author/publisher

Publication (Name of Journal)

American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics