Document Type



Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery


OBJECTIVE: To establish cephalometric norms of a sample of aesthetically pleasing Pakistani faces and to analyze differences and similarities with accepted standards for Caucasians.

STUDY DESIGN: Analytical cross sectional study.

PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Carried out at Alvi Dental Hospital, Karachi, from August 2007 to February 2008.

METHODOLOGY: Cephalometric tracings were analyzed on a sample of 40 (20 males and 20 females) Pakistani young adults, aged 18-25 years, with full complement of permanent teeth, no previous orthodontic treatment and pleasing profile. To check the reliability of the measurements, 20 randomly selected cephalograms were retraced. None of the measurements showed a significant difference. Student's 't' test was applied for overall group comparisons. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS: When compared with some classical standards, the results suggest that the Pakistani sample had greater cranial lengths (p < 0.001), shorter faces anteriorly (p < 0.001), and tended towards bimaxillary dental protrusion with more prominent chin (p < 0.001). Males had greater antero-posterior, horizontal and vertical measurements (p < 0.001). Females showed more dental protrusion (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Comparisons revealed statistically significant differences in most variables between Pakistanis and Caucasians and between Pakistani males and females. Pakistanis have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in treating Pakistani orthodontic and orthognathic surgery patients.


Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan