Document Type



Dental-oral, Maxillo-facial Surgery


Dentistry is a profession that requires coordinated motor skills in addition to acquired knowledge for ideal execution of any treatment plan for patients. Learning experiences have been modified over a period of time for students as well as for the healthcare providers. Conventional pre-clinical training employed the use of cadavers, but financial, ethical and supervisory constraints have become a major shortcoming. With the adaptation of technology in dentistry, pre-clinical training has now employed simulation. It provides the opportunity for students to develop psychomotor skills for procedures by practising pre-clinical, standardised learning competencies before they engage in patient-management. Simulation involves computer-aided learning, augmented reality and virtual reality, which are largely taking over pre-clinical teaching. Augmented reality is commonly being employed in maxillofacial, restorative, tooth morphology learning and mastering technique for administering local anaesthesia in dentistry. Virtual reality is being employed particularly in pre-treatment implant planning and dental education for students. Use of haptic technology, like robotics, is also gaining popularity, and facilitates a two-way communication between the user and the environment to better simulate the clinical setting for learning purposes.

Publication (Name of Journal)

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association