Cardiothoracic Surgery; Pathology and Microbiology
Hydatid disease is a frequently encountered entity in endemic areas and constitutes a serious health problem. The lung is the second most commonly affected organ after the liver. In three of four cases of pulmonary hydatid cyst, the cyst is solitary. The early phase after primary infection is always asymptomatic. Primary symptoms in patients with pulmonary cystic echinococcosis include cough, fever, and chest pain. The clinical and radiological manifestations for the hydatid cyst in the lung depend on the integrity of the cyst. Bronchial fistulization is an important event in the evolution of the cyst. In cases of dubious orientation after the initial study, ultrasonography, conventional tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging prove helpful in delineating the disease accurately. For a specific serologic diagnosis, theimmunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoelectrophoresis are preferred. Despite the fficacy of new chemotherapeutic regiments, the mainstay of treatment for thoracic hydatidosis remains essentially surgical. In general chemotherapy is used as a complement to surgical treatment to avoid recurrence of the disease. Regardless of the surgical methods adopted, the removal of the parasite intoto, prevention of its dissemination, maximum preservation of pulmonary function, and the immediate obliteration of the remaining cavity are the imperative basis for effective therapy. The most frequent post-surgical complications are pleural infection and prolonged air leakage. The operative morbidity and recurrence rates have been reported with variation. Education of the population in endemic areas regarding the disease transm ission cycle and institution of appropriate prophylaxis are essential steps to eradicate the disease completely.
Reviews in Infection
(2010). Hydatid cyst disease of the thorax. Reviews in Infection, 1(1), 42-48.
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