Document Type



Cardiothoracic Surgery


Background:The combination of depression with type 2 diabetes is a public health problem. If diabetes is managed in its initial phase, the morbidity and mortality due to this combination may be prevented at an early stage. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan.


From July 2006 to September 2007, a matched case control study (n = 592) was conducted in Civil Hospital, Karachi. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes (n = 296) diagnosed within one month were recruited from diabetic Out Patient Department (OPD) of Civil Hospital, Karachi. They were matched on age and sex with controls (n = 296), who were attendants sitting in the medical out Patient department of the same hospital, recruited on the basis of absence of classical symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia along with random blood glucose level of/dl measured by a glucometer. Depression was identified by the Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of depression and other independent variables with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes at 95% C.I. and P < 0.05.


The study comprised of 592 subjects with 432(73%) males and 160(27%) females. Depression was significantly associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes having mild level (mOR: 3.86, 95%CI: 2.22,6.71) and moderate to severe level (mOR: 3.41, 95%CI: 2.07,5.61). History of (h/o) gestational diabetes (mOR: 2.83, 95%CI: 1.05,7.64), family h/o diabetes (mOR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.04,2.43), nuclear family (mOR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.14,2.69), BMI (mOR: 1.62, 95%CI: 1.01,2.60 for obese and mOR: 2.12, 95%CI: 1.19,3.79 for overweight vs healthy to underweight) were also significantly associated with outcome, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, h/o smoking and h/o high BP.


Diabetics should be screened simultaneously for depression and concomitant preventive strategies for gestational diabetes, nuclear family and high BMI should also be used to prevent mortality/morbidity among Patients between 25 to 60 years of age.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome