Effect of peri-operative intra-aortic balloon pump in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on outcomes in a resource limited setting

Document Type



Cardiothoracic Surgery; Surgery


Introduction: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion for diminished myocardial function is standard of care in cardiac surgery. Previous studies have suggested a possible benefit to IABP support before surgery with regards to outcomes and complications. However, there are conflicts with other studies suggesting no significant benefit. Optimal time of insertion, whether preoperative or perioperative (intra-operative and post-operative), has yet to be defined.
Methodology: A retrospective, hospital records-based chart review was conducted for patients admitted to our center from January 2015 to December 2019 for coronary bypass surgery necessitating IABP insertion. Cases were stratified according to the timing of insertion and analyzed according to surgical outcomes and complication rates.
Results: Out of 97 patients, 84.5% underwent preoperative IABP insertion while 15.5% of patients received perioperative (Intra-operative or post-operative) insertion. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with perioperative IABP insertion as compared to the preoperative group (60% vs 20.7%, p = 0.003). However, there were no significant differences between 30-day readmission rates in the two groups (9.8% vs 6.7%, p = 1.000). Length of stay was also higher in patients with preoperative insertion of IABP (p = 0.032), with no significant difference in ICU stay (p = 0.107). Perioperative IABP patients had higher rates of arrhythmias (46.7%, p = 0.042) and reopening of patient (33.3%, p = 0.028).
Conclusion: Our study shows improved mortality in patients with preoperatively inserted IABP. This may be beneficial for high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery. Expanding the use of IABP before CABG in third world countries such as Pakistan may improve overall survival for patients.


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