Document Type



This is an era of transformation of surgical education and training. Modern methods of training are being introduced at a rapid pace and are being adopted in surgical practice not only to improve the outcomes and patient satisfaction, but also to provide an opportunity to develop a new well-structured training curriculum by integrating both traditional and modern approaches to teach and learn surgical skills. Various surgical simulators are in use as training aids and are constantly undergoing further refinement and development. To achieve a smooth transition in surgical training to modern methods, a structured programme has to be developed and validated to bridge the gaps in terms of safety, efficiency and ethics during the training process.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association