Temporal trends in risk factors and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage over 18 years at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Document Type





Background: The Purpose of this study was to analyze the baseline characteristics and outcomes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) Patients at our center over the last 18 years. Methods:Patients with ICH (first-time) were identified from medical records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from 1988 to 2005. Patients were divided into 2 groups, with each group spanning 9 years based on the year of admission: the old group (admitted between 1988 and 1996) and the newer group (admitted between 1997 and 2005).


Out of 920 Patients, the number of admissions with ICH increased from(average) during 1988 to 1996 to >60 per year (average) during 1997 to 2005. The findings indicate that the percentage of cases in males decreased from 72% to 55% in the newer group as compared to the older group, while female ICH admissions increased from 28% to 45%. Mean age of ICH onset for both men and women decreased about 5 years, but this difference was not statistically significant. Frequency of diabetes (14% v 30%), dyslipidemia (3% v 18%), and the use of antihypertensive medications (29% v 69%) was higher in newer group, while the frequency of lobar hemorrhage was found to be reduced (40% v 20%) in newer group. Lower mortality (22% in the newer group v 32% in the older group) was noted. A decreased length of hospital stay for the newer group was recorded, but this difference was not found to be statistically significant.


The mean age of ICH onset for both men and women has decreased about 5 years in the newer group. Men and women were equally affected in recent years as compared to male predominance in the older group.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases : the official Journal of National Stroke Association