Pituitary adenomas: Presentations and outcomes in a south Asian country

Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Aga Khan University
Muhammad Ehsan Bari, Aga Khan University
Faraz Khursheed, Aga Khan University
Rashid Jooma, Aga Khan University
Syed Ather Enam, Aga Khan University


Objective: The Purpose of this retrospective review of all operated cases of pituitary adenomas in the last decade, is to define the demographic patterns and characteristics of such tumors and to assess surgical outcomes with regards to safety and efficacy of trans-sphenoidal tumor removal in our institution. Methods:Surgically treated pituitary adenomas presenting from 1995 till 2005 were reviewed for different variables. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation and median for continuous and number with percentage for categorical data. Chi square test was applied to measure differences and significance was taken at p value < 0.05.


One hundred and twenty-five Patients were operated for pituitary adenoma. Sixty-three percent were male and mean age was 37 years. Sixty percent of the Patients presented with headache and/or visual symptoms. Twelve percent presented with pituitary apoplexy and 28% presented with symptoms due to pituitary hyperfunction. Fifty-five percent of Patients had functioning and 44% had non-functioning adenomas. Mean pre operative tumor diameter from 86 pre op MRI scans was 26.76 mm (3-78 mm). Eighty-four percent of Patients underwent trans-sphenoidal tumor resection and three percent had craniotomy. Mean size of post op residual tumor as calculated from 76 available post operative scans was 5.3 mm (range 0-31 mm). 17.6% of the Patients required hormone replacement beyond three months and 10% were re-operated. Overall mortality was 1.6%.


In Pakistan, Patients are more likely to present either with apoplexy or with a giant pituitary adenoma than Patients reported from developed countries. Overall, our results have been satisfactory and comparable with the literature.