Document Type

Case Report




Introduction: Cortical dysplasia carries significant morbidities such as seizures and delayed milestones. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) causes refractory epilepsy with various seizure types depending on the location and extent of the dysplasia. FCD in the temporal region and the insular cortex may cause ictal bradycardia (IB) and ictal asystole (IA). Video EEG (VEEG) with simultaneous EKG recording can better diagnose these cardiac abnormalities in FCD. We describe a case of refractory epilepsy. The patient's clinical seizures were usually followed by syncope. VEEG revealed frequent seizures some of which were associated with prolonged ictal asystole.
Results: A 15 years old female was admitted to an epilepsy monitoring unit for VEEG. There were widespread fast abnormal discharges known as FREDs with a frequency of 16-20 Hz. She developed numerous habitual seizures and syncope. Some of these were associated with an EKG change in the form of asystole. The cardiac workup was normal. MRI revealed abnormalities in bilateral insular, temporal, and right parietal lobes.
Conclusion: This case highlights the significance of:●Fast rhythmic epileptiform discharges (FREDs) in cortical dysplasia.●Role of video-EEG monitoring.●Prolonged asystole and the potential role of cardiac intervention in the form of cardiac pacing and cardioneuroablation in decreasing syncope.


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Clinical Neurophysiology Practice