Clinical spectrum of Parkinson's disease from Pakistan

Document Type





Introduction: Parkinson's disease is an idiopathic disorder of the extrapyramidal system. It has a worldwide prevalence but data from developing countries is scanty. We describe the clinical spectrum of the disease from Pakistan, a developing country.

Methods: Patients with Parkinson's disease, over a period of 11 years, were identified by ICD-9 coding system of the hospital medical records. Demographical characteristics, clinical features, laboratory investigations and radiological investigations were recorded and analysed.

Results: A total of 80 patients were identified. 50 (63 percent) were males and 30 (37 percent) were females. Mean age of onset of the disease was 54 years. 47 (59 percent) patients had onset of illness during the sixth or seventh decade of life. Mean duration of illness at the time of presentation was five years. Rigidity, bradykinesia, tremors, hypomimia, primitive reflexes, difficulty in performing fine work and walking difficulty were the most common clinical features. 52 (65 percent) patients had stage I or II (Hoehn-Yahr staging) disease at the time of presentation. 56 (70 percent) patients had predominantly unilateral symptoms. 15 (19 percent) patients had cognitive impairment. Cognitive decline was more common in the elderly and in patients with disease duration of longer than ten years.

CONCLUSION: Parkinson's disease is more common in males. Tremor, rigidity, walking difficulty, bradykinesia and difficulty in performing fine work are the commonest clinical features. Disease severity increases with duration of the disease. Cognitive impairment is not uncommon in these patients and is associated with disease duration and age of onset of the illness.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Singapore Medical Journal