Diabetes among muslims during ramadan: A narrative review

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Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five fundamental principles of Islam, and it is obligatory for healthy Muslim adults and adolescents. During the fasting month, Muslims usually have two meals a day, suhur (before dawn) and iftar (after dusk). However, diabetic patients may face difficulties when fasting, so it is important for medical staff to educate them on safe fasting practices. Prolonged strict fasting can increase the risk of hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis, but with proper knowledge, careful planning, and medication adjustment, diabetic Muslim patients can fast during Ramadan. For this review, a literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar until May 2023. Articles other than the English language were excluded. Current strategies for managing blood sugar levels during Ramadan include a combination of patient education on nutrition, regular monitoring of blood glucose, medications, and insulin therapy. Insulin therapy can be continued during fasting if properly titrated to the patients' needs, and finger prick blood sugar levels should be assessed regularly. If certain symptoms such as hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, dehydration, or acute illness occur, or blood glucose levels become too high (> 300 mg/dL) or too low (< 70 mg/dL), the fast should be broken. New insulin formulations such as pegylated insulin and medications like tirzepatide, a dual agonist of gastric-inhibitory peptideand glucagonlike-peptide 1 receptors, have shown promise in managing blood sugar levels during Ramadan. Non-insulin-dependent medications like sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 inhibitors, including the Food and Drug Administration-approved ertugliflozin, are also being used to provide additional cardiovascular benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes

Publication (Name of Journal)

World Journal of Clinical Cases