Comprehensive overview of human monkeypox: Epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis and prevention

Document Type

Review Article




Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), belonging to the orthopoxvirus genus with a presentation resembling smallpox making it historically challenging to distinguish the disease from smallpox clinically. Since a British citizen brought MPX into the country on 6 May 2022, there have been concerns about the re-emergence of the human MPXV. Since then, the WHO has reported 92 confirmed cases and 28 suspected cases in 13 nations where MPXV was not endemic. WHO declared MPX a 'public health emergency of international concern' on 23 July 2022. MPXV can spread either through human-human contact or animal-human contact. Respiratory droplets, direct contact with bodily fluids, contaminated patient surroundings or objects, and skin sores from an infected person have all been linked to the disease's transmission from one person to another. Fever, headache, lethargy, asthenia, enlargement of the lymph nodes, weariness, back pain, and myalgia are some of the symptoms that last from 2 to 5 weeks. It can be diagnosed using a range of diagnostic methods, including electron microscopy, Immunoglobulin M, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reactions, histological analysis, immunofluorescent antibody testing, virus isolation, etc. Smallpox immunization before infection may lessen clinical symptoms and is around 85% effective in protecting from the MPXV

Publication (Name of Journal)

Annals of Medicine and Surgery