Document Type



Department of Medicine; Internal Medicine


In a brief span of a few months, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought a major paradigm shift in operation of clinical services around the world. Infection may be mild, moderate or severe; many remain asymptomatic. High burden of non-communicable and communicable diseases theoretically puts Pakistani population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Considering the universal risk of infection, the outpatient services in Pakistan need to be redesigned. Starting with risk assessment of the facility and provision of a dedicated telephone connection, structure and workflow need to be redesigned in order to minimise risk of exposure to healthcare professionals, staff and patients. Patients with COVID-19 patients should be identified before they arrive in the facility and should be served expeditiously, in an environment which prevents cross-transmission of infection. Tele-consultation is assuming an important role. Changes which are taking place in response to Covid-19 pandemic will have far reaching effects on clinical services in Pakistan.

Publication (Name of Journal)

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association