Document Type



Medicine; Internal Medicine


Background: Resistant hypertension is a well-recognized clinical challenge yet there are no reported data on its prevalence in Pakistan. These patients are subjected to a higher risk of developing hypertensive complications. The objective of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension in an Asian cohort of hypertensive patients.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among hypertensive patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in Karachi from September-December 2015. Patient data and characteristics were recorded using a pre-coded questionnaire. Morisky and Berlin questionnaires were used to assess compliance to medications and determine the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Pearson's chi-square test was used to analyze statistical differences between hypertensive patients and related factors.
Results: A total of 515 patients were included in the study. Overall, 12% of the total patients (n=62) were resistant hypertensives and 25% (n=129) had pseudo-resistant hypertension. Resistant patients were more often females, older and had a higher body mass index (all P<0.001). Use of painkillers and noncompliance to dietary recommendations were found to be significant determinants of resistant hypertension. Prevalence of comorbid conditions, including diabetes (p=0.33), hyperlipidemia (p=0.46), and chronic kidney disease (p=0.23), was not significantly higher in patients with resistant hypertension.
Conclusion: Nearly one in ten hypertensive patients had true resistant hypertension, and twenty-five percent of patients had pseudo-resistance. Resistance hypertensions is significantly associated with female gender, older age, obesity, dietary noncompliance and increased use of NSAIDs.


Author copy

Publication (Name of Journal)

Indian Heart Journal