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Background: Atypical carcinoid arising from the mediastinal tissue is a rare neuroendocrine tumor and an association with parathyroid adenoma is very unusual. We report an unusual case of atypical carcinoid of mediastinum with metastasis in a patient presenting with parathyroid adenoma, which is the first case to be reported from Pakistan.

Case presentation: A 51-year-old Pakistani man was seen in postoperative intensive care after right parathyroidectomy and mediastinal mass resection for the management of postoperative hypocalcaemia. He had a background history of dyspnea. Examination was unremarkable. Preoperative laboratory evaluation revealed a calcium level of 12.7 mg/dl, phosphate of 1.9 mg/dl, serum albumin of 4.8 g/dl, alkaline phosphate of 94 U/L, and serum intact parathyroid hormone level 413.8 pg/ml. A technetium-99m sestamibi parathyroid scan showed right parathyroid increased tracer uptake. Further workup revealed a large mediastinal mass which was diagnosed as atypical carcinoid after Tru-Cut biopsy. He underwent right-sided parathyroidectomy and resection of the mediastinal mass. The histopathology confirmed it to be a parathyroid adenoma and atypical carcinoid tumor of his mediastinum with metastasis in his lymph node and parathyroid gland. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy revealed a well-defined focus in his left hypochondriac region consistent with a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy-avid tumor. He was started on everolimus and planned for octreotide therapy.

Conclusions: We describe an incidental finding of atypical carcinoid of the mediastinum in a patient diagnosed as having parathyroid adenoma. Clinical manifestations of neuroendocrine syndromes are challenging. Some tumors cluster in a non-classic description with other common neoplasms. They rarely present in isolation, remain clinically silent, and need aggressive workup with the aid of imaging and histopathology.



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Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of medical case reports

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.