Clinical outcomes of pneumocystis pneumonia from a tertiary care centre in Pakistan.

Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Aga Khan University
Hira Shahzad, Aga Khan University
Afia Zafar, Aga Khan University


Objective: To assess the predisposing immunocompromised states, administration of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis, the disease course and outcomes of patients with pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi. The medical records of patients diagnosed with pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia from January 1995 to October 2015 were retrieved. Baseline characteristics, clinical course, treatment, and mortality rates were noted. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis.

Results: Of the 37 patients, 24(64.9%) were men and 13(35.1%) were women. The overall mean presenting age was 47.08±16.21 years(range: 19-83 years). Ten (27%) patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus; 12(32.4%) had an underlying autoimmune disease; 3(8.1%) were transplant recipients; 10(27%) had an underlying malignancy, and 19(51.3%) were on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Only 2(5.4%) patients had received pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Moreover, 8(21.6%) patientsrequired intensive care unit admission with a mean stay of 2.03±4.91 days (range: 1-22 days).The overall mortality rate was 7(18.9%).

Conclusion: Pneumonia due to pneumocystis jirovecii was found to be a life-threatening disease in the immunocompromised population. The high mortality burden and resource intensive management of the disease emphasizes the need for PCP prophylaxis in immunosuppressed individuals.