Cardiovascular Disease-Related Lifestyle Factors among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Pakistan: A Multicentre Study for the Prevalence, Clustering, and Associated Sociodemographic Determinants.

Ali Khan Khuwaja, Aga Khan University
Saima Lalani, Aga Khan University
Iqbal Syed Azam, Aga Khan University
Badar Sabir Ali
Abdual Jabbar, Aga Khan University
Raheem Dhanani


Background: We evaluated the prevalence and clustering pattern of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related lifestyle factors and their association with CVD among Patients with type 2 diabetes. We also examined the association of these factors with various socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: A total of 1000 Patients with type 2 diabetes were interviewed in a cross-sectional, multi-center study in out-Patient clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: In this study 30.3% study participants had CVD. Majority of the Patients were physically inactive and had adverse psychosocial factors. Forty percent of the study participants were exposed to passive smoking while 12.7% were current smokers. Only 8.8% of study subjects had none of the studied lifestyle factor, 27.5% had one, while 63.7% had two or three factors. CVDs were independently associated with physical inactivity, adverse psychosocial factors, passive smoking and clustering of two or three lifestyle factors. Physical inactivity was more prevalent among females and Patients with no/less education. Proportion of adverse psychosocial factors were higher among females, elders and Patients with no/less education. Clustering of these lifestyle factors was significantly higher among females, elderly and no/less educated Patients. Conclusion: These results suggest the need of comprehensive and integrated interventions to reduce the prevalence of lifestyle factors.