Satiety drinking tests: Effects of caloric content, drinking rate, gender, age, and body mass index

Document Type





Objective: To compare the maximum tolerated volumes (MTVs) of drinking water and a nutrient liquid at different rates of drinking and to assess the best drinking test correlating with the symptom scores. Material And Methods: Healthy volunteers were requested to drink water at a rate of 10 ml/min or a nutrient liquid drink at 100 and 20 ml/min on three separate occasions. Symptoms of bloating, nausea, and abdominal pain were assessed 30 min after the cessation of drinking using visual analogue scales. Results: The MTV of water was 1595405 in males and 1327308 in females (p0.05). In rapid nutrient drinking, the MTV was 945376 ml in males, whereas females tolerated 760174 ml (p0.05). In slow nutrient drinking, the MTV was 692184 ml in males and 594131 ml in females (p=0.051). Multiple regression analysis showed no influence of body mass index (BMI), age, or gender in slow nutrient drinking. However, drinking capacity was significantly influenced by gender, age, and BMI in rapid water drinking and by gender in rapid nutrient drinking. When the tolerated volumes for satiety drinking tests were compared, only males showed some significant positive correlations. Symptom scores were higher after slow nutrient drinking compared to the other two drinking tests. Conclusions: The rate of drinking and the caloric content affect the MTVs in satiety drinking tests. Slow nutrient drinking appears to be the best choice among the different satiety drink tests, as MTV in this test was not influenced by BMI or age and was associated with higher symptom scores.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology