Mortality and mode of dialysis: Meta-analysis and systematic review

Document Type



Internal Medicine


Background: The global use of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) has increased, mirroring the incidence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Despite its growing clinical usage, patient outcomes with KRT modalities remain controversial. In this meta-analysis, we sought to compare the mortality outcomes of patients with any kidney disease requiring peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis (HD), or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).
Methods: The investigation was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were screened for randomized trials and observational studies comparing mortality rates with different KRT modalities in patients with acute or chronic kidney failure. A random-effects model was applied to compute the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) with CRRT vs. HD, CRRT vs. PD, and HD vs. PD. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics, and sensitivity using leave-one-out analysis.
Results: Fifteen eligible studies were identified, allowing comparisons of mortality risk with different dialytic modalities. The relative risk was non-significant in CRRT vs. PD [RR = 0.95, (95%CI 0.53, 1.73), p = 0.92 from 4 studies] and HD vs. CRRT [RR = 1.10, (95%CI 0.95, 1.27), p = 0.21 from five studies] comparisons. The findings remained unchanged in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. Although PD was associated with lower mortality risk than HD [RR = 0.78, (95%CI 0.62, 0.97), p = 0.03], the significance was lost with the exclusion of 4 out of 5 included studies.
Conclusion: The current evidence indicates that while patients receiving CRRT may have similar mortality risks compared to those receiving HD or PD, PD may be associated with lower mortality risk compared to HD. However, high heterogeneity among the included studies limits the generalizability of our findings. High-quality studies comparing mortality outcomes with different dialytic modalities in CKD are necessary for a more robust safety and efficacy evaluation.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Nephrology