Clinical and biochemical characteristics of male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients: A retrospective cross sectional study

Document Type



Diabetes/Endocrinology and Metabolism; Medical College Pakistan


Background: Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a medical condition where there is a deficiency or insensitivity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) without a known cause. Not only are the sexual characteristics of a person affected by this condition but also are the psychological and physical development, thus necessitating its early recognition and treatment. This research was carried out to identify the laboratory parameters and to present symptoms of the patients with complaints of IHH.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective, center, single-center, cross-sectional study was carried out in Aga Khan University from December 2000 until December 2020 on the patients that presented to the clinic with IHH. The patients included in the study were those that presented with hypogonadism, a low concentration of sex steroid hormone, and an abnormal gonadotropin level without any expansive pituitary or hypothalamic lesion.
Results: Seventy nine patients presenting with IHH were included with their mean age of 24.2 ± 7.5 years. Of these, 64 (81.0%) had genital atrophy, 50 (63.6%) showed an absence of secondary sexual characteristics, 53 (67.1%) complained of infertility, 44 (55.7%) had not shown signs of puberty, 52 (65.8%) had erectile dysfunction, 46 (58.2%) had a decrease in libido, 11(13.9%) had a previous familial history, 24 (30.3%) had gynecomastia, 9 (11.4%) had non-descended testes, and 6 (7.6%) had anosmia. These patients had serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels of 26.3 ± 60, 1.3 ± 2.4, and 2.7 ± 5.0 (IU/L), respectively.
Conclusion: Thus, it can be stated that small genitalia is the most common complaint among patients with IHH, followed by infertility and lack of secondary sexual characteristics. The testosterone level in serum is also found to be low among these patients

Publication (Name of Journal)

International Journal of Fertility and Sterility