Document Type



Sleep is a significant marker of physical and psychological health. The present research was undertaken to explore perceptions of parents, teachers and pediatricians about preschool children’s sleep patterns, habits, and problems from urban Karachi, Pakistan. A qualitative research approach was employed; data collection methods were Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). The themes identified were children’s sleep patterns, sleep environment, sleep rituals, distractions, sleep problems, the impact of inadequate sleep, and recommendations to improve. Emergent themes were inconsistency of rules from parents, lack of opportunities for outdoor physical activity, different kinds of stresses, social and cultural events happening late at night, having TV/technology in the bedroom, and effects of inadequate sleep on parents’ lives. The findings provided compelling indications to educate parents on the importance of sleep and its effects on health, development, school performance, behavior, and similar needs. Participants recommended that this could be effectively done with support from schools and healthcare facilities. Screen time was found to have a huge negative impact on children’s sleep. An important finding was that socialization is important, but it should not forsake children’s bedtime. It is crucial for parents as well as every member of the society to be cognizant of children’s bedtime schedules while planning and organizing gatherings and events.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Early Childhood Care and Education