Antidiarrheal, antispasmodic and bronchodilator activities of pistacia integerrima are mediated through dual inhibition of muscarinic receptors and Ca++ influx

Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Pistacia integerrima (J. L. Stewart ex Brandis) is native plant to this region and has a history of vernacular use in gastrointestinal and respiratory tract disorders. This study was aimed to validate native therapeutic utility of P. integerrima in gut and airway diseases using the in-vivo and in-vitro assays. Oral administration of the crude methanolic extract of P. integerrima (Pi.Cr) to mice provided protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea, similar to the effect of loperamide and was also found safe without any symptoms of acute toxicity or lethality up to the maximum tested dose of 9 g kg–1. When tested in isolated tissues preparations, Pi.Cr potently inhibited spontaneous contractions in rabbit jejunum, while it also caused complete relaxation of high K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM)-induced contractions both in jejunal and tracheal preparations being more potent against CCh. Pretreatment of tissues with Pi.Cr, at low dose, caused a parallel shift in CCh Concentration-Response Curves (CRCs) without suppression of the maximal response but further increase in dose, caused a non-parallel shift with suppression of maximal response, similar to the effect of dicyclomine. The study concludes that P. integerrima possesses antidiarrheal, antispasmodic and bronchodilator activities possibly mediated through dual inhibition of muscarinic receptors and Ca++ influx, thus providing scientific basis to the folk medicinal use of P. integerrima in gut (diarrhea) and airways (asthma and bronchitis) disorders.


Science, Technology and Development