Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Introduction: Few things are proven, there are modifiable and non-modifiable factors that could impact on the health of pregnant women who have Gestational Diabetes Millitus (GDM). However, case control studies are lacking that explore the modifiable factors and identify which modifiable factors are associated with GDM.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the modifiable associated risk factors of GDM among women at 32 to 40 weeks of gestation.
Methodology: A case-control study design was conducted at secondary hospitals for women and children in Karachi, Pakistan. The data were collected from 100 cases and same number of controls, through a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics, using Stata(TM) Version 12.0.
Results: The majority of the study participants had a past history of GDM and had a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 25kg/m2. Most of the participants were graduates or post-graduates. The results of the study identified that the modifiable factors which were significantly associated with GDM included household physical activities, transportation related physical activities, recreational activities (i.e., walking, number of stairs climbed daily), use of fruits and eggs, and night time sleep duration. Only 12% of the participants reported that they spent greater than or equal to six hours in recreational physical activities. About one-third (35%) of the participants reported sleeping more than six hours a night.
Conclusion: The present study identified the association of some modifiable factors with GDM. There is a dire need to develop preventive strategies that can promote a healthy lifestyle among pregnant women. Attention should be given to increasing physical activity, promoting a healthy diet, and having proper sleep. In light of the current study findings, a study with a large sample size, including multi-center settings, is needed.