Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


The COVID-19 pandemic has affected nearly every country around the globe. Although every individual is at risk of getting the virus, maternal, fetal and newborn clients face specific and potentially unknown challenges which can make them highly compromised. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the maternal health challenges faced by women during COVID-19 and to propose possible strategies using the socio-ecological model (SEM) to promote the physical, social, and mental well-being of women and their infants during the perinatal period. SEM can be used as a framework to plan and implement strategies focusing on health promotion and disease prevention. It guides stakeholders to design actions at each level, starting from individual to the policy level.