Differences between stated and implemented policies in early childhood education leadership: A case study of Tanzania

Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the stated and implemented policies in Early Childhood Education (ECE) leadership in Tanzania. A qualitative case study was conducted in Tanzania at national level, local government authorities (district level) and primary school level in two districts of Temeke in Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo in Pwani (Coast). The study was guided by four main research questions that were intended to find out how the policies enacted at the national level were implemented at local level, the professional background of those implementing the policies in ECE, supporting structures that were in place to support ECE leadership and the last question was looking at the perceived barriers in ECE leadership in Tanzania. Through the case study approach, key government documents on education were reviewed to determine the increase or decrease in students' enrollment, teacher training, curriculum development and resource allocations. Interviews were conducted with national level officials, district education officials, primary school head teachers and classroom teachers. The total of 37 participants participated in this study; 9 people at national level, 4 people at the district level and 24 for teachers – six head teachers and 18 classroom teachers. The findings from the review of government documents revealed that although ECE was part of the formal education system; the enrollment of students in ECE classes was fluctuating indicating a decrease rather than an increase. The findings indicated that ECE was not included in the education annual budgets for the data that were available from 2003/04 to 2012/2013. Also findings indicated that there was a shortage of trained ECE teachers and that the current ratio of 1:114 was well above the approved teacher student ratio of 1:25. There was no report during this study that could indicate how the government was implementing the Teacher Development Management (TDMs) to meet the increased demand of qualified teachers.

Publication (Name of Journal)

ProQuest Dissertations & Theses