Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


The spread of COVID-19 in the year 2020 put various nations at risk, especially in social, economic, and educational aspects. School closure was employed as one of the response measures against the spread of this virus. However, the measure imposed high social and educational risks with consequences of a massive drop academically. This study investigated the management of the COVID-19 pandemic risks in primary schools in the Lindi region in Tanzania intending to suggest the essence of having a risk management plan for indeterminate outbreaks and other uncertainties to avoid the recurrence of the risks. The study adopted a qualitative case study design which allowed an in-depth data collection through one-on-one interviews and observation methods. Thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data for this inquiry. Findings revealed that the targeted schools were able to manage the COVID-19 pandemic risks even though the management was done locally due to the lack of risk management plans in the schools. Furthermore, it was discovered that there was no budget set to deal with the emerging risks. Headteachers from the investigated schools went as far as using part of their salaries to tackle the emerging risks as a result of school closure. Additionally, findings also revealed that during school closure teachers were unprepared on how to conduct the teaching and learning processes amongst the pupils through distance mode. Despite several endeavors to try to ensure pupils continue to learn in their homes, the strategies were not successful due to inadequate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) knowledge and skills among the teachers, parents, and pupils as well as insufficient supportive distance learning infrastructures such as ICT equipment and the internet. Consequently, proper implementation of distance teaching and learning during school closure was impaired due to the lack of risk management plans in schools. It is recommended that the risk management plan be developed to ensure that teaching and learning processes are never hampered by emergencies.

Publication (Name of Journal)

International Journal of Learning and Development



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.