Inclusion of informal economic actors in voluntary social security schemes: A study of motorcycle taxi service (bodaboda) in Dar es Salaam

Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


This study explores and organizes the informal motorcycle transport operators to understand how motorcycle taxi service (boda-boda) riders join or refrain from becoming members of social security schemes that provide social protection. The study examines the perceptions of boda-boda actors toward voluntary contribution to social security schemes. The study employed a case study research design whereby qualitative methods were used to collect data through face-to-face interviews with motorcycle operators in Dar es Salaam. Motorcycle operators seem to be a lucrative employment sector for many youths and provide informal mobility services for urban residents; the activity faces many safety risks, physical disability from accidents, motorcycle theft, unreliable incomes and job insecurity; yet many are not members of the formal social security system. The study found that motorcycle operators established savings associations as social security institutions. These social security associations provide loans, moral and psychosocial support to members. The findings further indicate that flexible association norms and swift access to social security support in an event one has had a misfortune such as an accident or sickness make most association members prefer the association rather than formal social security schemes. This calls for legal, social security to adopt operational conditions that provide swift support to its members and the need for them to support and collaborate with these informal social security associations.

Publication (Name of Journal)

International Journal of Development and Sustainability

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.