Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a type of self-organizing networks with limited energy supply and communication ability. One of the most crucial issues in WSNs is to use an energy-efficient routing protocol to prolong the network lifetime. We therefore propose the novel Energy-Efficient Load Balancing Ant-based Routing Algorithm (EBAR) for WSNs. EBAR adopts a pseudo-random route discovery algorithm and an improved pheromone trail update scheme to balance the energy consumption of the sensor nodes. It uses an efficient heuristic update algorithm based on a greedy expected energy cost metric to optimize the route establishment. Finally, in order to reduce the energy consumption caused by the control overhead, EBAR utilizes an energy-based opportunistic broadcast scheme. We simulate WSNs in different application scenarios to evaluate EBAR with respect to performance metrics such as energy consumption, energy efficiency, and predicted network lifetime. The results of this comprehensive study show that EBAR provides a significant improvement in comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches EEABR, SensorAnt, and IACO.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.