Document Type



Pathology (East Africa)


Recent advances in thefield of immuno-oncology have brought transformative changes in the management ofcancer patients. The immune profile of tumours has been found to have key value in predicting disease prognosis andtreatment response in various cancers. Multiplex immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence have emerged aspotent tools for the simultaneous detection of multiple protein biomarkers in a single tissue section, therebyexpanding opportunities for molecular and immune profiling while preserving tissue samples. By establishing thephenotype of individual tumour cells when distributed within a mixed cell population, the identification of clinicallyrelevant biomarkers with high-throughput multiplex immunophenotyping of tumour samples has great potential toguide appropriate treatment choices. Moreover, the emergence of novel multi-marker imaging approaches can nowprovide unprecedented insights into the tumour microenvironment, including the potential interplay betweenvarious cell types. However, there are significant challenges to widespread integration of these technologies in dailyresearch and clinical practice. This review addresses the challenges and potential solutions within a structuredframework of action from a regulatory and clinical trial perspective. New developments within thefield ofimmunophenotyping using multiplexed tissue imaging platforms and associated digital pathology are also described,with a specific focus on translational implications across different subtypes of cancer.

Publication (Name of Journal)

The Journal of Pathology