Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa)


Background: Ectopic pregnancies (EP) are a common pregnancy complication that's associated with significant morbidity and rarely mortality if not managed properly. Ultrasound examination forms the cornerstone of diagnosis of EP with some sonographic features occasionally not correlating with intraoperative findings. We set out to conduct an audit of EP managed surgically at our hospital for a 10-year period and discern the correlation and prediction of sonographic findings to intraoperative findings.

Methods: This study was designed as a Retrospective Observational Study based at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). Study population was all women admitted to AKUH with a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy that was surgically managed between the period of January 1st 2011 to December 31st 2020. Analysis of data was done against a pre-set checklist. Descriptive statistics for continuous variables was calculated and tabulated in graphs and tables. SPSS version 22 was used for analysis of data.

Results: A total of 337 patients in this study had ultrasound findings. 99.7% (n = 336) of these patients had an intraoperatively confirmed EP. The commonest ultrasound finding was an adnexal mass in 97.1% (n = 309) of patients. These were confirmed surgically in 290 patients at the following locations: 76.6% (n = 222) were ampullary in location; 10.7% (n = 31) were fimbrial in location; 8.6%(n = 25) were isthmic in location; 2.4%(n = 7) were interstitial in location; 1%(n = 3) were abdominal in location; while 0.3% were located in the ovary(n = 1) or round ligament(n = 1) each. Interstitial EP on ultrasound were all (100%) confirmed in the same location intraoperatively, with ampullary EP also correlating fairly well with intraoperative location (75%). The distribution of location in the minor hemoperitoneum (HP) versus major HP groups were similar except for interstitial EP that increased from 1.4% in the minor HP group to 9.5% in the major HP group.

Conclusion: In conclusion, ultrasonography still represents the best imaging modality for EP. The most common finding is usually an adnexal mass with no specific location. Most (99.7%) of the patients with this sonographic finding usually have a confirmed EP. Interstitial EP are the most well localized with ultrasound followed by ampullary EP. Furthermore, the presence of major (> 500mls) hemoperitoneum may act as an adjunct for diagnosis of an interstitial EP.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.