A review: Exposure to bisphenol a analogues in non-human primates as a potential cause of endometriosis

Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa)


Introduction: Bisphenol A is a synthetic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins worldwide. As an environmental toxin, it has been reported in plastic equipment and utensils, water bottles and bottle tops, water supply pipes and epoxy resins that coat most of the metal food cans. It is a known endocrine disrupting chemical and has been progressively replaced by its derivatives including bisphenol S, bisphenol F, bisphenol E, bisphenol AF, bisphenol B and tetramethyl bisphenol F. Bisphenol A and its analogues can bind to estrogen receptors and trigger multiple cellular responses at the organism level.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was done utilising electronic databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Connected papers and Science Direct from 1991 onwards. The articles were only included if they reported original relevant research and were limited to articles written in English.

Results: Animal models, including non-human primates, have been used to study their effects on the endocrine system. Its endocrine disruption activity is reported to be the most studied effect in reproductive biology indicating that it may potentially cause endometriosis in females. Though non-human primates are closely related to humans, limited data exists on their associations between Bisphenol A exposure and its analogues and the pathophysiology of endometriosis.

Conclusion: Given the current multifaceted knowledge/theory on endometriosis etiology, there is a strong necessity to conduct further biomedical research that utilises non-human primates to study the link between endocrine-disrupting chemicals and its effects on endometriosis

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Disorders