Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa)


Background: The variation of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes shapes the risks of cervical cancer and these variations are not well defined in Africa. Nucleotide changes within the L1 gene, nucleotide variability, and phylogeny were explored in relation to HIV in samples from Botswana and Kenya. Methods: A total of 98 HPV-positive cervical samples were sequenced to identify diferent HPV variants. Phylogenetic inferences were used to determine HPV genotypes and investigate the clustering of sequences between women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and -women not living with HIV (WNLWHIV). Results: Out of 98 generated sequences, 83.7% (82/98) participants had high-risk (HR) HPV genotypes while 16.3% (16/98) had low-risk (LR) HPV genotypes. Among participants with HR-HPV genotypes, 47.6% (39/82) were coinfected with HIV. The prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes was statistically higher in the Botswana population compared to Kenya (p-value


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Infectious Diseases


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.