Is HbA1c associated with birth weight? A multivariable analysis of Pakistani pregnant women

Document Type



Family Medicine (East Africa); Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa); Paediatrics and Child Health (East Africa); Pathology (East Africa)


Aim: Globally, one in seven infants is born with low birth weight and 3%–7% of infants are born with high birth weight, with the greatest burden noted in low-and middle-income countries. This study investigated the association between maternal prenatal glucose regulation and birth weight and the moderating effect of fetal sex among Pakistani women.

Methods: Secondary data from a prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women from Pakistan (N=189) was used. Participants provided a blood sample (12–19 weeks 'gestational age) for the assessment of HbA1c (%). Birthweight (g) was collected following delivery.

Results: Higher maternal HbA1c was associated with higher birth weight(b=181.81,t[189]=2.15,p=0.03), which was moderated by fetal sex(b=-326.27,t[189]=-2.47,p=0.02), after adjusting for gestational age at birth, ethnicity, and pregnancy weight. Among women carrying a male fetus ,every 1% increase in HbA1c predicted a 182 g increase in birth weight(b=181.81,t[189]=2.15,p=0.03).

Conclusions: Results extend research from high-income countries and indicate that fetal sex may have implications for glucose regulation in early to mid-pregnancy. Future research should examine sociocultural factors, which could elucidate potential mediating factors in the relation between HbA1c and birth weight in healthy pregnancies

Publication ( Name of Journal)

Obstetrics and gynecology

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.