Interpretation, communication, and mechanisms of associations between injectable contraception and HIV risk

Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa)


Data from the VOICE study1 showing greater HIV-1 acquisition among women who use depot medroxyprogersterone acetate (DMPA) than injectable norethisterone (NET-EN) contraception elicited comment suggesting that use of DMPA be limited.2 The fundamental uncertainty, which has not been addressed by the VOICE data or recent meta-analyses of other observational data cited in the commentary,3,4 is whether DMPA increases susceptibility to HIV, or whether women at increased risk of HIV are more likely to use DMPA.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Lancet Hiv